### Specifying Losses

Losses can be specified in two ways. The most flexible way of including a loss factor in an AFT Impulse model is to associate it with a junction specifically defined for that type of loss. This allows you to define a loss as a function of a flow parameter such as Reynolds number or volumetric flow rate, or as a function of the area change ratio between the upstream and downstream pipes.

Secondly, you can include loss factors with pipes. When you specify Fittings & Losses in the Pipe Properties window, the loss is assumed to be distributed evenly along the pipe length, much like friction losses. For this reason a pipe-associated loss factor is referred to as a distributed loss. The losses at junctions, on the other hand, are point losses. When modeling for waterhammer, it is preferred that losses for all static components be included in pipes as Fittings & Losses. This reduces the number of pipes and model run time.